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高光谱遥感就是“火眼金睛”
<p style="margin: 0pt; line-height: 1.75em;"><span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: Calibri; font-size: 11pt; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;"><span style="line-height: 150%; font-family: 宋体; font-size: 11pt; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;">在</span>2016<span style="line-height: 150%; font-family: 宋体; font-size: 11pt; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;">年度中国遥感领域</span>10<span style="line-height: 150%; font-family: 宋体; font-size: 11pt; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;">大事件评选中,</span>“<span style="line-height: 150%; font-family: 宋体; font-size: 11pt; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;">遥感技术首次辅助城市黑臭水体整治工作取得实效</span>”<span style="line-height: 150%; font-family: 宋体; font-size: 11pt; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;">名列榜首。而这与高光谱遥感技术有很密切的联系。</span></span></p><p style="margin: 0pt; line-height: 1.75em;"><span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: Calibri; font-size: 11pt; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;">&nbsp;</span></p><p style="margin: 0pt; line-height: 1.75em;"><span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><strong><span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: 宋体; font-size: 11pt; font-weight: bold; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;">那么,高光谱遥感技术到底是怎么回事儿?</span></strong></span></p><p style="margin: 0pt; line-height: 1.75em;"><span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><strong><span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: Calibri; font-size: 11pt; font-weight: bold; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;">1.<span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: 宋体;">光谱:物体独一的身份证</span></span></strong></span></p><p style="margin: 0pt; line-height: 1.75em;"><span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: Calibri; font-size: 11pt; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;"><span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: 宋体; font-size: 11pt; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;">遥感可以概括为借助光、热、无线电波等电磁能量来探测地物特性的科学。在</span>20<span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: 宋体; font-size: 11pt; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;">世纪</span>60<span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: 宋体; font-size: 11pt; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;">年代之前,人类对地球和宇宙的观测还主要以可见光为主。</span></span></p><p style="margin: 0pt; line-height: 1.75em;"><span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: Calibri; font-size: 11pt; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;">&nbsp;</span></p><p style="margin: 0pt; line-height: 1.75em;"><span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: Calibri; font-size: 11pt; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;"><span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: 宋体; font-size: 11pt; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;">人们日常生活中所见的光,是由多种颜色构成的复色光,通过棱镜等分光后显现的是单色光。这些单色光按不同波长</span>(<span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: 宋体; font-size: 11pt; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;">或频率</span>)<span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: 宋体; font-size: 11pt; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;">大小依次排列形成的图案,就是光谱。地球上不同的元素及其化合物,由于物质组成、结构等不同,都有不同的光谱特征。这些独特的光谱特性,类似于人类指纹的功能,是遥感科学中用以识别和分析不同物体特征的一种重要的</span>“<span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: 宋体; font-size: 11pt; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;">身份证</span>”<span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: 宋体; font-size: 11pt; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;">。高光谱遥感实际上是一种简称,它的全称叫</span>“<span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: 宋体; font-size: 11pt; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;">高光谱分辨率遥感</span>”<span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: 宋体; font-size: 11pt; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;">。它不像多光谱遥感中根据颜色的差异来分辨目标,而是根据谱段光谱曲线的形态来分析目标是什么。光谱分析是人类借助光认知世界的重要方式。如果说肉眼光学成像能看到物质的形状、尺寸等信息,光谱分析则能获取物质的成分信息。</span></span></p><p style="margin: 0pt; text-align: center; line-height: 1.75em;"><span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: Calibri; font-size: 11pt; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;">&nbsp;<img title="1620869399884797.png" alt="图片1.png" src="/uploads/image/20210513/1620869399884797.png"/></span></p><p style="margin: 0pt; line-height: 1.75em;"><span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><strong><span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: Calibri; font-size: 11pt; font-weight: bold; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;">2.“<span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: 宋体;">火眼金睛</span><span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: Calibri;">”</span><span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: 宋体;">怎样炼成</span></span></strong></span></p><p style="margin: 0pt; line-height: 1.75em;"><span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: Calibri; font-size: 11pt; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;">高光谱遥感技术还可以发现隐蔽的哨所、坦克,伪装起来的军事设施。</span></p><p style="margin: 0pt; line-height: 1.75em;"><span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: Calibri; font-size: 11pt; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;">&nbsp;</span></p><p style="margin: 0pt; line-height: 1.75em;"><span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: Calibri; font-size: 11pt; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;">当前,农业生产管理存在作物营养和病虫害等农情信息大面积监测不及时、监测水平以定性为主、监测精度无法实现定量的精准变量肥水药管理等难题。高光谱遥感技术可以对任何一种农作物的品种、类型、种植面积等情况进行调查,甚至可以对农作物的叶绿素、氮磷钾含量进行分析,为相关决策提供科学依据。</span></p><p style="margin: 0pt; line-height: 1.75em;"><span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: Calibri; font-size: 11pt; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;">&nbsp;</span></p><p style="margin: 0pt; line-height: 1.75em;"><span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: Calibri; font-size: 11pt; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;">高光谱遥感技术还可以为地质学家提供帮助。以前,地质学家野外考察时,背着包、拿着罗盘,需要花很大气力把采集到的矿物标本一一背回来进行研究。而自从有了高光谱仪器,他们只要到一个地方用高光谱仪器扫描一下,就可以获得岩石的一条光谱曲线,从野外回来后根据光谱曲线进行分析,可以知道这个地方矿物分布种类以及区域。</span></p><p style="margin: 0pt; line-height: 1.75em;"><span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: Calibri; font-size: 11pt; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;">&nbsp;</span></p><p style="margin: 0pt; line-height: 1.75em;"><span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><strong><span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: Calibri; font-size: 11pt; font-weight: bold; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;">3.<span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: 宋体;">水质监测领域大有可为</span></span></strong></span></p><p style="margin: 0pt; line-height: 1.75em;"><span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: Calibri; font-size: 11pt; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;">当前,全国城市黑臭水体的筛查、治理过程监督和整治效果评价,都迫切需要遥感大范围动态监测提供科技支撑,但黑臭水体遥感监测的有关研究几乎为空白。高光谱遥感技术可以对不同污染程度和不同污染来源的黑臭水体进行区分。</span></p><p style="margin: 0pt; line-height: 1.75em;"><span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: Calibri; font-size: 11pt; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;">&nbsp;</span></p><p style="margin: 0pt; line-height: 1.75em;"><span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: Calibri; font-size: 11pt; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;"><span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: 宋体; font-size: 11pt; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;">中国科学院遥感与数字地球研究所水环境遥感研究团队在北京等城市开展了十余次黑臭水体野外实验,积累了</span>141<span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: 宋体; font-size: 11pt; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;">个黑臭采样点的实测遥感反射率等数据。基于黑臭水体和一般水体的反射率细微的光谱差异,发展了决策分类树,可以区分一般水体、三种类型的轻度黑臭水体和七种类型的重度黑臭水体。并发展了基于纯度算法的多光谱遥感识别算法,可以识别一种类型的重度黑臭水体,识别精度约</span>90%<span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: 宋体; font-size: 11pt; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;">。基于这一方法,作为参研单位之一,进行了</span>13<span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: 宋体; font-size: 11pt; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;">个城市黑臭水体遥感筛查与实地验证。</span></span></p><p style="margin: 0pt; line-height: 1.75em;"><span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: Calibri; font-size: 11pt; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;">&nbsp;</span></p><p style="margin: 0pt; line-height: 1.75em;"><span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: Calibri; font-size: 11pt; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;"><span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: 宋体; font-size: 11pt; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;">利用高光谱数据对内陆水质开展水华和水生高等植物的识别,从而对水质分布情况进行监测,也是高光谱遥感的重要应用。由于水草和水华光谱与植被光谱具有一定的相似性,常用的多光谱遥感数据很难精确识别水华和水草,只有高光谱遥感数据才能够捕捉复杂多变的水华、水草和水体细致的光谱差异,从而对水华和水草进行精确识别。水环境遥感研究团队利用高光谱遥感技术等构建了水体叶绿素</span>a<span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: 宋体; font-size: 11pt; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;">浓度、总悬浮物浓度、水色</span>FU<span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: 宋体; font-size: 11pt; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;">值等</span>9<span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: 宋体; font-size: 11pt; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;">种水质参数、</span>19<span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: 宋体; font-size: 11pt; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;">个反演模型。其中,针对浑浊水体的悬浮物浓度精度提高了</span>19.7%<span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: 宋体; font-size: 11pt; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;">;研发了国内首个在国家级和省级环保部门业务化运行的内陆水环境遥感系统,为环保部卫星环境应用中心等部门开展水环境遥感应用提供了有力支撑。</span></span></p><p></p>
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