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浅谈直读光谱仪在检测钢铁材料时误差分析及消除对策
<p style="margin: 0pt; line-height: 150%;"><span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: Calibri; font-size: 11pt; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;">随着钢铁产量的逐渐增多,人们对产品分析检测结果的精度有了更高的要求,在对钢铁产品进行检测的时,需要借助直读光谱仪来进行检测工作,然而在具体的检测过程中,由于激发光源和实验对象成分的影响,检测的结果时常会出现一定程度的误差。据此,结合直读光谱仪的工作原理,以钢铁材料中不锈钢产品为例,对检测不锈钢成分中误差的产生原因及消除对策进行深入的分析。</span></p><p style="margin: 0pt; text-align: center; line-height: 150%;"><span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: Calibri; font-size: 11pt; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;">&nbsp;<img title="1622513425163404.png" alt="图片1.png" src="/uploads/image/20210601/1622513425163404.png"/></span></p><p style="margin: 0pt; line-height: 150%;"><span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><strong><span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: 宋体; font-size: 11pt; font-weight: bold; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;">一、直读光谱仪的工作原理</span></strong></span></p><p style="margin: 0pt; line-height: 150%;"><span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: Calibri; font-size: 11pt; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;"><span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: 宋体; font-size: 11pt; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;">直读光谱仪为发射光谱仪,主要通过测量样品被激发时发出代表各元素的特征光谱光的强度而对样品进行定量分析的仪器。按照功能分为</span>4<span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: 宋体; font-size: 11pt; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;">个模块:</span></span></p><p style="margin: 0pt; line-height: 150%;"><span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: Calibri; font-size: 11pt; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;">1<span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: 宋体; font-size: 11pt; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;">、激发系统:任务是通过各种方式使固态样品充分原子化,并放出各元素的发射光谱光</span></span></p><p style="margin: 0pt; line-height: 150%;"><span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: Calibri; font-size: 11pt; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;">2<span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: 宋体; font-size: 11pt; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;">、光学系统:对激发系统产生出的复杂光信号进行处理(整理、分离、筛选、捕捉)</span></span></p><p style="margin: 0pt; line-height: 150%;"><span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: Calibri; font-size: 11pt; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;">3<span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: 宋体; font-size: 11pt; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;">、测控系统:测量代表各元素的特征谱线强度,通过各种手段,将谱线的光强信号转化为电脑能够识别的数字电信号,控制整个仪器正常运作</span></span></p><p style="margin: 0pt; line-height: 150%;"><span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: Calibri; font-size: 11pt; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;">4<span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: 宋体; font-size: 11pt; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;">、计算机中的软件数据处理系统:对电脑接收到的各通道的光强数据进行各种算法运算,得到稳定准确的样品含量。</span></span></p><p style="margin: 0pt; line-height: 150%;"><span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: Calibri; font-size: 11pt; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;">&nbsp;</span></p><p style="margin: 0pt; line-height: 150%;"><span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><strong><span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: 宋体; font-size: 11pt; font-weight: bold; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;">二、直读光谱仪检测不锈钢成分时误差产生原因</span></strong></span></p><p style="margin: 0pt; line-height: 150%;"><span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: Calibri; font-size: 11pt; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;">利用直读光谱仪来对不锈钢的成分进行检测的过程中,存在着这样一种问题,同一个测量人员在利用同样的测量方法和测量仪器,对同一样品进行多次的检测,其检测结果不能保证完全相同,在这样的情况下可以看出,检测误差的产生是不可避免的,其中产生误差的原因有很多,其主要原因如下:</span></p><p style="margin: 0pt; line-height: 150%;"><span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: Calibri; font-size: 11pt; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;">1<span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: 宋体; font-size: 11pt; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;">、激发光源的不稳定性,不锈钢在检测时蒸发或者激发之间没有明显的界线,这些过程几乎是在同步进行的,这种情况下,都会对检测结果造成一定程度的影响。</span></span></p><p style="margin: 0pt; line-height: 150%;"><span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: Calibri; font-size: 11pt; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;">2<span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: 宋体; font-size: 11pt; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;">、检测的对象对检测结果造成影响,在进行检测的过程中,不能仅仅使用一种检测条件来对不锈钢中的成分进行分析,比如分析钢铁的工作条件,就不适合对有色金属进行分析。</span></span></p><p style="margin: 0pt; line-height: 150%;"><span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: Calibri; font-size: 11pt; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;">3<span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: 宋体; font-size: 11pt; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;">、氩气的纯度会引起检测结果出现误差。</span></span></p><p style="margin: 0pt; line-height: 150%;"><span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: Calibri; font-size: 11pt; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;">4<span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: 宋体; font-size: 11pt; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;">、不锈钢中合金元素含量较高,这样对其中非金属元素的含量分析不准确。</span></span></p><p style="margin: 0pt; line-height: 150%;"><span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: Calibri; font-size: 11pt; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;">5<span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: 宋体; font-size: 11pt; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;">、操作台的电极污染,从而造成其中的合金元素含量偏高,导致检测结果的不合理。</span></span></p><p style="margin: 0pt; line-height: 150%;"><span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><strong><span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: Calibri; font-size: 11pt; font-weight: bold; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;">&nbsp;</span></strong></span></p><p style="margin: 0pt; line-height: 150%;"><span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><strong><span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: 宋体; font-size: 11pt; font-weight: bold; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;">三、直读光谱仪检测不锈钢成分时误差消除对策</span></strong></span></p><p style="margin: 0pt; line-height: 150%;"><span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: Calibri; font-size: 11pt; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;">针对以上检测误差的产生原因,在具体的检测过程中,需要对其中的各个环节进行把控,一般情况下,其误差消除对策包括以下方面:</span></p><p style="margin: 0pt; line-height: 150%;"><span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: Calibri; font-size: 11pt; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;">1<span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: 宋体; font-size: 11pt; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;">、正确取样。在进行光谱分析的时候,取样的方法和对样品的处理结果,也会对检测的精度产生一定的影响,对于碳含量较高的不锈钢来说,需要在对其进行切割之后采取暖冷,这样可以避免样品产生裂缝。</span></span></p><p style="margin: 0pt; line-height: 150%;"><span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: Calibri; font-size: 11pt; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;">2<span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: 宋体; font-size: 11pt; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;">、提高操作人员的检测水平。在检测的过程中,需要保证操作人员对仪器操作熟练,对样品和分析方法有着足够深的认识。</span></span></p><p style="margin: 0pt; line-height: 150%;"><span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: Calibri; font-size: 11pt; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;">3<span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: 宋体; font-size: 11pt; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;">、检测设备。为了提高检测分析结果的精度,消除其中的误差,需要对其中所使用的设备进行相应的保养,保证其中分光计的整体精度,达到检测所需要的标准,另外也需要对光源的性能进行严格把控。</span></span></p><p style="margin: 0pt; line-height: 150%;"><span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: Calibri; font-size: 11pt; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;">4<span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: 宋体; font-size: 11pt; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;">、样品和检测环境。样品检测之前,需要对进行样品检测环境的温度、湿度照明和电磁干扰等条件进行严格控制,以此来保证仪器的整体稳定性。</span></span></p><p style="margin: 0pt; line-height: 150%;"><span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: Calibri; font-size: 11pt; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;">&nbsp;</span></p><p style="margin: 0pt; line-height: 150%;"><span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: Calibri; font-size: 11pt; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;"><span style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); line-height: 150%; font-family: 宋体; font-size: 11pt; mso-spacerun: &quot;yes&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt;">总结:在利用直读光谱仪对不锈钢成分进行检测时,由于样品、操作人员、检测仪器和检测方法等方面的影响,会使检测的结果出现一定程度的误差,这就需要操作人员具有丰富的操作经验,并且保证设备和样品处于标准的检测状态,以此来保证检测的整体精度。</span>&nbsp;</span></p><p></p>
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